The vineyard at Canoe Ridge Estate is home to 559 acres dedicated to producing elegant, refined wines with concentration and structure. 12 million years ago, a powerful river of lava carved what is today known as Canoe Ridge or alternately a bit of "Europe on the Columbia". The ancient lava followed the Columbia River and left huge layers of basalt behind. Deep, free-draining soils sit on top of the basalt, deposited by great floods from the last Ice Age 13,000 years ago. Young vines in search of water and nutrients easily establish deep root systems here. Canoe Ridge Estate's windswept site in the Horse Heaven Hill's AVA provides Chateau Ste. Michelle with low-fertility soil, constant sun and steady winds coming up from the Columbia River- the perfect model for premium growing conditions. In 1991, we planted our vineyard at Canoe Ridge Estate on the south face of the ridge that rises 950 feet above sea level. The vineyard's steep slope and proximity to the river combine to alleviate frost pockets and seasonal temperature extremes. Because winters are milder than other parts of the valley, spring bud break is earlier. In the summer, the river moderates temperatures again, giving us an extended growing season and adding character to the grapes. Unlike most vines growing in the world today, all vines in Washington are planted on their own rootstocks, since phylloxera, a root-eating aphid, is not an issue here. The combination of the Columbia Valley's desert dryness in the summer and deep winter chill makes us more resistant to pests and molds. Having vines on their own roots helps us maintain the health and longevity of our vineyards and preserves the grape variety in its natural state with no influence from the grafted roots. Canoe Ridge Estate wines have earned scores of 90 or higher on more than 40 of their wines; and our Chardonnay, Cabernet Sauvignon, and Merlot have each received Wine Spectator 'Top 100' honors. Sustainability is a top priority at all Chateau Ste. Michelle vineyards. The vineyard at Canoe Ridge Estate is LIVE and Salmon Safe certified.